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Obstructive sleep apnea
Symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness, feeling fatigued despite a full night's sleep. There is also good evidence that this can raise blood pressure, an irregular heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation, and raise blood sugar.
The first test I administer is a questionnaire filled out by the patient called the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. You can link to it here:
I do a physical exam, and also find it helpful if anyone who shares the bed with a patient notes any loud snoring or pauses in their breathing pattern.
A sleep study, or polysomnogram, can be done if sleep apnea is suspected. This involves being attached to equipment that monitors oxygen levels, heart rate, etc. Sometimes this can be done in your own home.
If obstructive sleep apnea is diagnosed, the preferred treatment is to use CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) to keep the airway open. This can be done via the nose alone or with a larger mask hooked up to a machine. The sleep study will tell us what settings are required.
If this is not tolerated, sometimes dental appliances or surgery is tried.